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Cryptography is the practice of securing communication from unauthorized access or interception, using techniques such as encryption, decryption, and digital signature. Cryptography has been used for thousands of years, and its principles have evolved to meet the challenges of modern technology and communication.

Blockchain technology, the underpinning of most cryptocurrencies, depends heavily on cryptography, because blockchain, at its core, is a decentralized, irreversible, and cryptographically secured ledger of digital transactions.